- BPS model is an interdisciplinary model that assumes that health and wellness are caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.
- This model was first explained by by psychiatrist George L. Engel in Science journal in 1977.
- This model is based on the system perspective.
- BPS model rejected biomedical model as dogma.
- General systems theory (von Bertalanffy)
- Social cognitive theory
- Cybernetics (von Neumann)
- Information theory
- Game theory
- “Holistic” biology (Dubos, Mayr)
- This model states mind, body, and environment interact in causing disease.
- Biological component of the model refers to the fact that pathogens like germs and toxins precipitate illness.
- Psychological/behavioural component looks for potential psychological causes for a health problem such lack of self-control, emotional turmoil, and negative thinking.
- The social part of the BPS model explains how different social factors such as socioeconomic status, culture, poverty, technology, and religion can influence health.
- The model presumes that it is important to handle these three factors together when managing health problems.
Application of BPS Model
- E.g. Social isolation and joblessness ——-> depression/self-incrimination/sedentary lifestyle ——> hypercholestrolemia/myocardial infarction/diabetes
- BPS model implies that treatment of cancer/diabetes/mental disorders should address biological, psychological and social components of the problem.
- Multi Axial dimension to APA classification of mental disorders – DSM IV and WHOO ICD-10 classification of mental disorders are efforts to apply BPS in mental health care.
- Engel GL. The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science. 1977;196:129–36.
- Engel GL. The clinical application of the biopsychosocial model. Am J Psychiatry 1980; 137:535-544 .
- Psychiatry, Third Edition. Ers. Allan Tasman, Jerald Kay, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, Michael B. First and Mario Maj.John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2008.