- Intelligence refers to:
- “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.”
- “the capacity to reason validly about information.”
- Major theories:
- Faculty theory
- Two Factor Theory – Charles Spearman
- L.L Thurstone’s Theory of Intelligence
- Howard Gardner —Multiple intelligences
- Sternberg– Triarchic theory
- Emotional Intelligence
- Artificial Intelligence
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- Faculty theory is the oldest theory regarding the nature of intelligence.
- This theory states that mind is made up of different faculties like reasoning, memory, discrimination and imagination etc.
- These faculties are independent of each other and can be developed by vigorous exercise.
- Faculty theory has been criticized and proved that mental faculties are not independent.
Two Factor Theory
- Proposed by Charles Spearman (1863-1945).
- This theory proposes that intellectual abilities were comprised of two factors:
- general ability or common ability known as ‘G’ factor and
- group of specific abilities known as ‘S’ factor.
- This theory states that a general intelligence factor (g) underlies other, more specific aspects of intelligence.
Louis L. Turnstone’s Theory
- He explained intelligence as a person’s “pattern” of mental abilities or a cluster of abilities.
- “Intelligence, considered as a mental trait, is the capacity to make impulses focal at their early, unfinished stage of formation. Intelligence is therefore the capacity for abstraction, which is an inhibitory process “
- This theory explains 7 different “primary mental abilities” which he called primary abilities:
- word fluency
- verbal comprehension
- spatial visualization
- number facility
- associative memory
- perceptual speed
Multiple Intelligence Theory– Howard Gardner
- Linguistic (“word smart”)
- Logical-mathematical (“number smart”)
- Musical (“music smart”)
- Spatial (“art smart”)
- Bodily-kinesthetic (“body smart)
- Intrapersonal (“self smart”)
- Interpersonal (“people smart”)
- Naturalist (“nature smart”)
Triarchic Theory (Robert Sternberg)
- Analytic intelligence—mental processes used in learning how to solve problems
- Creative intelligence—ability to deal with novel situations by drawing on existing skills and knowledge
- Practical intelligence—ability to adapt to the environment (street smarts
- The ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions.
- The ability to manage emotions in one’s self and in others in order to reach desired outcomes.
- An ability to validly reason with emotions and to use emotions to enhance thought.
- An ability to recognize the meanings of emotion and their relationships, and to reason and problem-solve on the basis of them.
Artificial intelligence (AI)
- “the study and design of intelligent agents”
- “the intelligence of machines”
- Term first used by John McCarthy, in 1956.
- It is the science and engineering of making intelligent computer machines.
- Thurstone, L. L. (1973). The Nature of Intelligence. London: Routledge.
- Sternberg R.J (1982). Handbook of Human Intelligence. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27, 267-298.