|IntroductionThe concept of community is defined as “a group of people who share some important feature of their lives and use some common agencies and institutions.” The concept of health is defined as “a balanced state of well-being resulting from harmonious interactions of body, mind, and spirit.” The term community health is defined by meeting the needs of a community by identifying problems and managing interactions within the community
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The six basic elements of nursing practice incorporated in community health programs and services are:
The focus of nursing includes not only the individual, but also the family and the community, meeting these multiple needs requires multiple roles. The seven major roles of a community health nurse are:
Settings for community health nursing can be grouped into six categories:
Theories and Models for community health nursing
The commonly used theories are:
Milio’s Framework of prevention
Salmon White’s construct for public health nursing
Scope of prevention spans individual, family, community and global care. Intervention target is in 4 categories:
Block and Josten’s Ethical Theory of population focused nursing
Derryl Block and Lavohn Josten, public health educators proposed this based on intersecting fields of public health and nursing. They have given 3 essential elements of population focused nursing that stem from these 2 fields:
the first two are from public health and the third element from nursing. Hence it implies to nursing that relation-based care is very important in population focused care.
Canadian Model for community
The community health nurse works with individuals, families, groups, communities, populations, systems and/or society, but at all times the health of the person or community is the focus and motivation from which nursing actions flow. The standards of practice are applied to practice in all settings where people live, work, learn, worship and play.
The philosophical base and foundational values and beliefs that characterize community health nursing – caring, the principles of primary health care, multiple ways of knowing, individual/community partnerships and empowerment – are embedded in the standards and are reflected in the development and application of the community health nursing process.
The community health nursing process involves the traditional nursing process components of assessment, planning, intervention and evaluation but is enhanced by community health nurses in three dimensions:
The model illustrates the dynamic nature of community health nursing practice, embracing the present and projecting into the future. The values and beliefs (green or shaded) ground practice in the present yet guide the evolution of community health nursing practice over time. The community health nursing process provides the vehicle through which community health nurses work with people, and supports practice that exemplifies the standards of community health nursing. The standards of practice revolve around both the values and beliefs and the nursing process with the energies of community health nursing always being focused on improving the health of people in the community and facilitating change in systems or society in support of health. Community health nursing practice does not occur in isolation but rather within an environmental context, such as policies within their workplace and the legislative framework applicable to their work.