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Blood Chemistry Tests and Haematology Reference Values

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Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 7-18 mg/dL Increased in renal disease and dehydration; decreased in liver damage and malnutrition
Carbon dioxide (CO2) (includes bicarbonate) 23-30 mmol/L Useful to evaluate acid-base balance by measuring total carbon dioxide in the blood: Elevated in vomiting and pulmonary disease; decreased in diabetic acidosis, acute renal failure, and hyperventilation
Chloride (Cl) 98-106 mEq/L Increased in dehydration, hyperventilation, and congestive heart failure; decreased in vomiting,diarrhea, and fever
Creatinine 0.6-1.2 mg/dL Produced at a constant rate and excreted by the kidney; increased in kidney disease
Glucose Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL Random: 85-125 mg/dL Increased in diabetes and severe illness; decreased in insulin overdose or hypoglycemia
Potassium (K) 3.5-5 mEq/L Increased in renal failure, extensive cell damage, and acidosis; decreased in vomiting, diarrhea, and excess administration of diuretics or IV fluids
Sodium (Na) 101-111 mEq/L or 135-148 mEq/L (depending on test) Increased in dehydration and diabetes insipidus; decreased in overload of IV fluids, burns,diarrhea, or vomiting
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 10-40 U/L Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of liver disease and to monitor the effects of drugs on the liver; increased in myocardial infarction
Albumin 3.8-5.0 g/dL Albumin holds water in blood; decreased in liver disease and kidney disease
Albumin-globulin ratio (A/G ratio) Greater than 1 Low A/G ratio signifies a tendency for edema because globulin is less effective than albumin at holding water in the blood
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 20-70 U/L (varies by method) Enzyme of bone metabolism; increased in liver disease and metastatic bone disease
Amylase 21-160 U/L Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of acute pancreatitis and to detect inflammation of the salivary glands
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 0-41 U/L (varies) Enzyme present in tissues with high metabolic activity; increased in myocardial infarction and liver disease
Bilirubin, total 0.2-1.0 mg/dL Breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells; increased when excessive red blood cells are being destroyed or in liver disease
Calcium (Ca) 8.8-10.0 mg/dL Increased in excess parathyroid hormone production and in cancer; decreased in alkalosis, elevated phosphate in renal failure, and excess IV fluids
Cholesterol 120-220 mg/dL desirable range Screening test used to evaluate risk of heart disease; levels of 200 mg/dL or above indicate increased risk of heart disease and warrant further investigation
Creatine phosphokinase (CPK or CK) Men: 38-174 U/L Women: 96-140 U/L Elevated enzyme level indicates myocardial infarction or damage to skeletal muscle. When elevated,specific fractions (isoenzymes) are tested for
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) Men: 6-26 U/L Women: 4-18 U/L Used to diagnose liver disease and to test for chronic alcoholism
Globulins 2.3-3.5 g/dL Proteins active in immunity; help albumin keep water in blood
Iron, serum (Fe) Men: 75-175 g/dL Women:65-165 /dL Decreased in iron deficiency and anemia; increased in hemolytic conditions
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) Men: 30-70 mg/dL Women:30-85 mg/dL Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease
Lactic dehydrogenase(LDH or LD) 95-200 U/L (Normal ranges vary greatly) Enzyme released in many kinds of tissue damage, including myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction, and liver disease
Lipase 4-24 U/L (varies with test) Enzyme used to diagnose pancreatitis
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) 80-140 mg/dL Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease
Magnesium (Mg) 1.3-2.1 mEq/L Vital in neuromuscular function; decreased levels may occur in malnutrition, alcoholism, pancreatitis, diarrhea
Phosphorus ((Page*)) (inorganic) 2.7-4.5 mg/dL Evaluated in response to calcium; main store is in bone: elevated in kidney disease; decreased in excess parathyroid hormone
Protein, total 6-8 g/dL Increased in dehydration, multiple myeloma;decreased in kidney disease, liver disease, poor nutrition, severe burns, excessive bleeding
Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) > See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) > See Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Thyroxin (T4) 5-12.5 g/dL (varies) Screening test of thyroid function; increased in hyperthyroidism; decreased in myxedema and hypothyroidism
Thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH) 0.5-6 mlU/L Produced by pituitary to promote thyroid gland function; elevated when thyroid gland is not functioning
Triiodothyronine (T3) 120-195 mg/dL Elevated in specific types of hyperthyroidism
Triglycerides Men: 40-160 mg/dL Women: 35-135 mg/dL An indication of ability to metabolize fats; increased triglycerides and cholesterol indicate high risk of atherosclerosis
Uric acid Men: 3.5-7.2 mg/dL Women:2.6-6.0 mg/dL Produced by breakdown of ingested purines in food and nucleic acids; elevated in kidney disease, gout, and leukemia