Your torso consists of two parts — the chest and the abdomen. The chest contains your heart and lungs; your abdomen contains the digestive and urinary systems. Your chest and abdomen are separated by a dome-shaped sheet of muscle called the diaphragm.
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Cells are the smallest structural unit of living organisms, capable of maintaining life and reproducing. Viruses are not cells because they cannot maintain life and reproduce by themselves.
Although a nerve cell looks entirely different from a red blood cell (Figure 1-A-1), their organizations are essentially the same. Even plant cells and animal cells share significant similarity in the overall organization.
Figure 1-A-1. Schematic drawing of a nerve cell and a red blood cell.
The cranial nerve is a part of the peripheral nervous system and primarily serves the head and the neck. There are about 12 pairs of cranial nerves where only one pair extends to the thoracic and the abdominal cavities.
Characteristics of the cranial nerves
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