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Brain Damaging Habits

1. No Breakfast
People who do not take breakfast are going to have a lower blood sugar level. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the brain causing brain degeneration.

2. Overeating
It causes hardening of the brain arteries, leading to a decrease in mental power.

3. Smoking
It causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer disease.

4. High Sugar Consumption
Too much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causing malnutrition and may interfere with brain development. (more…)

Cortisol Hormone Effects

Injections Angels

Basic-Advanced Nursing Skills Videos

Find useful learning videos on nursing skills and related lectured from Southern Adventist University, USA

Southern Adventist University

Selected Nursing Skills Videos on Youtube 

Nursing Diagnoses VS Medical Diagnoses

What are nursing diagnoses and how do they differ from medical diagnoses? How do nursing diagnoses fit in the nursing process and why are they so critical to safe, effective nursing care?
nursing diagnosis is a clinical judgment about individual, family, or community responses to actual and/or potential health problems or life processes. medical diagnosis, on the other hand, is the identification of a disease based on its signs and symptoms.
The professional practice of nursing is the diagnosing and treatment of these basic human responses. Nurses need a common language to describe the human responses of individuals, families, and communities to health threats. NANDA strives to classify in a scientific manner these basic human responses.
Nursing diagnoses are based on assessment data and are classified under the concepts of ingestion, digestion, absorption, metabolism, urinary/gastrointestinal elimination, sleep/rest, activity/exercises, energy balance, sexuality, post trauma responses, comfort, and growth and development.

Diagnosis – Second Step in the Nursing Process


  • Is the 2nd step of the nursing process.
  • the process of reasoning or the clinical act of identifying problems


  • To identify health care needs and prepare a Nursing Diagnosis.
  • To diagnose in nursing
  • It means to analyze assessment information and derive meaning from this analysis.

Nursing Diagnosis 

  • Is a statement of a client’s potential or actual health problem resulting from analysis of data.
  • Is a statement of client’s potential or actual alterations/changes in his health status.
  • A statement that describes a client’s actual or potential health problems that a nurse can identify and for which she can order nursing interventions to maintain the health status, to reduce, eliminate or prevent alterations/changes.
  • Is the problem statement that the nurse makes regarding a client’s condition which she uses to communicate professionally.
  • It uses the critical-thinking skills analysis and synthesis in order to identify client strengths & health problems that can be resolves/prevented by collaborative and independent nursing interventions.
    • Analysis – separation into components or the breaking down of the whole into its parts.
    • Synthesis – the putting together of parts into whole

Student Resources: Nursing Diagnoses

Image Courtesy: http://allnurses.com
Three Activities in Diagnosing: 

  1. Data Analysis
  2. Problem Identification
  3. Formulation of Nursing Diagnosis

Characteristics of Nursing Diagnosis 

  1. It states a clear and concise health problem.
  2. It is derived from existing evidences about the client.
  3. It is potentially amenable to nursing therapy.
  4. It is the basis for planning and carrying out nursing care.

Components of A nursing diagnosis (PES or PE) 

  1. Problem statement/diagnostic label/definition = P
  2. Etiology/related factors/causes = E
  3. Defining characteristics/signs and symptoms = S
  •   *Therefore may be written as 2-Part or a 3-Part statement.


Documenting and Reporting

Guidelines for Good Documentation and Reporting 

1. Fact – information about clients and their care must be factual. A record should contain descriptive, objective            information about what a nurse sees, hears, feels and smells
2. Accuracy – information must be accurate so that health team members have confidence in it
3. Completeness – the information within a record or a report should be complete, containing concise and thorough            information about a client’s care. Concise data are easy to understand
4. Currentness – ongoing decisions about care must be based on currently reported information.
At the time of occurrence include the following:
a. Vital signs
b. Administration of medications and treatments
c. Preparation of diagnostic tests or surgery
d. Change in status
e. Admission, transfer, discharge or death of a client
f. Treatment fro a sudden change in status
5. Organization – the nurse communicate in a logical format or order
6. Confidentiality – a confidential communication is information given by one person to another with trust and                confidence that such information will not be disclosed

Image: http://magazine.nursing.jhu.edu


Purpose of Charting: 

To make record of—

  1. The significant observation of the patient’s condition both mental and physical.
  2. The medication, treatment, diets and nursing care given and the reaction of the patient to this care.
  3. The incident which might have some bearing on the patient’s condition.


Communication in Nursing


  1. Is the means to establish a helping-healing relationship. All behavior communication influences behavior.
  2. Communication is essential to the nurse-patient relationship for the following reasons:
  3. Is the vehicle for establishing a therapeutic relationship.
  4. It the means by which an individual influences the behavior of another, which leads to the successful outcome of nursing intervention.

Basic Elements of the Communication Process 

  1. Sender – is the person who encodes and delivers the message
  2. Messages – is the content of the communication. It may contain verbal, nonverbal, and symbolic language.
  3. Receiver – is the person who receives the decodes the message.
  4. Feedback – is the message returned by the receiver. It indicates whether the meaning of the sender’s message was understood.




  • It is the process of exchanging information or feelings between two or more people. It is a basic component of human relationship, including nursing.

The Communication process


  • Or stimulus motivates a person to communicate with another. It may be an object, emotion, idea or act.


  • Also called the encoder, is the person who initiates the interpersonal communication or message


  • The information that is sent or expressed by the sender.


  • It means, conveying messages such as through visual, auditory and tactile senses.


  • Also called the decoder, is the person to whom the message is sent


  • Helps to reveal whether the meaning of the message is received