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Brain Damaging Habits

1. No Breakfast
People who do not take breakfast are going to have a lower blood sugar level. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients to the brain causing brain degeneration.

2. Overeating
It causes hardening of the brain arteries, leading to a decrease in mental power.

3. Smoking
It causes multiple brain shrinkage and may lead to Alzheimer disease.

4. High Sugar Consumption
Too much sugar will interrupt the absorption of proteins and nutrients causing malnutrition and may interfere with brain development. (more…)

Cortisol Hormone Effects

Maslow’s Theory of Needs

  • Proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation.
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a motivational theory that argues that while people aim to meet basic needs, they seek to meet successively higher needs in the form of a hierarchy.
  • Maslow’s theoryhas been applied in nursing to guide the prioritization of patient care needs
  • It is often represented as a pyramid with five levels of needs.

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Tidal Model of Mental Health Nursing

Life is a journey taken on an ocean of experience.  – Tidal Model


  • Tidal model is a mental health recovery model which may be used as the basis for interdisciplinarymental health care.
  • It was developed by Phil Barker and Poppy Buchanan-Barker of  University of Newcastle, UK.
  • It is considered as a mid-range theory of nursing.
  • The main focus of the model is on helping individual people, make their own voyage of discovery.

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Theory of Mind

  • Theory of mind is the term used to describe the understanding of beliefs, desires, motivations, and emotions as mental states that are ascribed to
    one’s self and others.
  • Theory of mind (ToM) refers to the ability to represent the mental states of others and/or to make inferences about another’s intentions.
  • ToM is a specific cognitive ability to understand others as intentional agents.
  • ToM means being able to infer the full range of mental states (beliefs, desires, intentions, imagination, emotions, etc.) that cause action
  • Theory of Mind is the branch of cognitive science that investigates how we ascribe mental states to other persons and how we use the states to explain and predict the actions of those other persons. (Marraffa, 2001)

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  • The theory of mind difficulties are core cognitive features of autism
    spectrum conditions. (Baron-Cohen, 2000).
  • Individuals with schizophrenia have impairments in ToM that appear to be independent from general cognitive abilities.
  • An understanding of the mind is fundamental to an understanding of the social world.
  • It allows us to distinguish between accidental and intended behavior, and truth and deception.


  1. Brune M and Brune-Cohrs U(2006). Theory of mind–evolution, ontogeny,
    brain mechanisms and psychopathology. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral
    Reviews; 2006, 30:4, 437–455.
  2. Baron-Cohen S (2001). Theory of mind in normal development and autism. Prisme, 34, 174-183.
  3. Marraffa M. (2011). Theory of Mind. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Available at http://www.iep.utm.edu/theomind/ Accessed on 1/2/2012.



Theories of Learning


  • Learning theories refers to theoretical frameworks which try to explain how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning.
  • Learning refers to “a persisting change in human performance   or performance potential brought about   as a result of the learner’s interaction with the   environment”
  • There are three main categories of learning theories:
    • Behaviorism -focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning.
    • Cognitive theories – look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning.
    • Constructivism – learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts.

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Nerve cells arranged in networks communicate information with one another through neurotransmission which is the conduction of electrical messages from neuron to neuron. The electrochemical messages cross the synapses between neural cells by way of special chemical messengers called neurotransmitters.  (more…)

Chronic Pain Linked With Psychological Attitude

By Belinda McCallumInteraction rate between the frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens in the brain, related to emotional and motivational behavior, is a predictor or whether one will develop chronic pain after back injury, a new study finds. (Kiyoshi Takahase Segundo/Photos.com)

(Interaction rate between the frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens in the brain, related to emotional and motivational behavior, is a predictor or whether one will develop chronic pain after back injury, a new study finds. (Kiyoshi Takahase Segundo/Photos.com) (more…)


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