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Critical Thinking: Mind Map

Ref: http://www.snjourney.com

Nursing Students

Theories of Learning


  • Learning theories refers to theoretical frameworks which try to explain how people and animals learn, thereby helping us understand the inherently complex process of learning.
  • Learning refers to “a persisting change in human performance   or performance potential brought about   as a result of the learner’s interaction with the   environment”
  • There are three main categories of learning theories:
    • Behaviorism -focuses only on the objectively observable aspects of learning.
    • Cognitive theories – look beyond behavior to explain brain-based learning.
    • Constructivism – learning as a process in which the learner actively constructs or builds new ideas or concepts.

Image Courtesy: http://iansmathedblog.blogspot.com


Theories of Intelligence

  • Intelligence refers to:
    • “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.”
    •  “the capacity to reason validly about information.”
  • Major theories:
    • Faculty theory
    • Two Factor Theory – Charles Spearman
    • L.L Thurstone’s Theory of Intelligence
    • Howard Gardner —Multiple intelligences
    • Sternberg– Triarchic theory
    • Emotional Intelligence
    • Artificial Intelligence

Image Courtesy: http://mbtitruths.blogspot.com


Application of Theory in Nursing Process

Image: http://www.kaweahdelta.org/nursing/WTOHC.asp


  • Theories are a set of interrelated concepts that give a systematic view of a phenomenon (an observable fact or event) that is explanatory & predictive in nature.
  • Theories are composed of concepts, definitions, models, propositions & are based on assumptions.
  • They are derived through two principal methods; deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning.


Evidence Based Nursing

Image Copyright: http://www.caresearch.com.au

  • Evidence-based practice (EBP) is a problem-solving approach to the delivery of health care that integrates the best evidence from studies and patient care data with clinician expertise and patient preferences and values. (Fineout-Overholt E, 2010)
  • Health care that is evidence-based and conducted in a caring context leads to better clinical decisions and patient outcomes. Gaining knowledge and skills in the EBP process provides nurses and other clinicians the tools needed to take ownership of their practices and transform health care. Key elements of a best practice culture are EBP mentors, partnerships between academic and clinical settings, EBP champions, clearly written research, time and resources, and administrative support. (Fineout-Overholt E, 2005)


Critical Thinking

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